Once it was clear that the 9/11 hijackers were Muslim, American Muslims became targets 21 years ago. The pain and anger of the tragedy drove anti-American sentiment as well as ongoing suspicion and misconception of Islam.

Has public perception towards Muslims shifted, as the 21-year marker of 9/11 approaches? In an edition for the 20th anniversary last year, Under The Radar examined the systemic and structural racism against Muslims that has long been embedded in the United States.


Amaney Jamal, the Edwards S. Sanford professor of politics at Princeton University, dean of the Princeton School of Public and International Affairs, former director of the Mamdouha S. Bobst Center for Peace and Justice and author of “Race and Arab Americans After 9/11.

Malika Bilal, host of “The Take” podcast by Al Jazeera and former co-host of The Stream, a social-media led talk show on Al Jazeera English.

Fatema Ahmad, executive director at Muslim Justice League in Boston.