Educational Issues for Students with Disabilities
Considering the Ages and Skill Levels of Students
Preserving Pedagogy During Access Adaptation
Benefits of Multimodal Learning
Educational Policies and Standards
U.S. Federal Government Requirements
ADA and Section 504
The National Instructional Materials Accessibility Standard (NIMAS)
The National Instructional Materials Accessibility Center (NIMAC)
U.S. State Policies
California Higher Education Requirements
Maryland K-12 Educational Technology Requirements
Access For All: the Accessibility Metadata Standard
Metadata for Accessibility
Primary and Equivalent Resources
Using Accessibility Metadata
Disabilities, Functional Limitations and Accessibility Tips
For People Who Are Blind
For People with Low Vision
For People with Color Blindness
For People Who Are Hard-of-Hearing or Deaf
For People with Physical Disabilities
For People with Language or Cognitive Disabilities
Tools for Access: Types of Assistive Technologies
Refreshable Braille Displays
Equivalent Access Versus Alternative Access
Direct Access Versus Compatible Access
Access Issues for Selected Development Environments
Macintosh OS X
The Java™ platform
Provide access to images for users who are blind or visually impaired.
Provide text equivalents for all images.
Provide meaningful alt for all images.
Use the longdesc attribute to provide an in-depth HTML description, where necessary.
Write image descriptions.
Allow images and screen layouts to be printed and enlarged.
Provide commands for printing the entire screen or a specific image.
Use the standard operating system print API.
Allow users to print to a file.
Provide tactile graphics or three-dimensional models for images.
Provide tactile graphics for images.
Provide 3D models for complex images.
Provide access to forms for users who are blind or visually impaired.
Label all form elements and controls so they can be recognized by assistive technology, such as a screen reader.
Explicitly label all text fields, text areas, drop-down menus, checkboxes and radio buttons.
Label all buttons.
Provide access to data in tables for blind users.
Design all HTML data tables in accordance with the Web Content Accessibility Guidelines published by the World Wide Web Consortium's Web Accessibility Initiative (W3C/WAI).
Use HTML to mark up tables.
Provide alternative access to static tables.
Provide access to digital publications.
Provide accessible on-line HTML books.
Provide accessible electronic books (e-books).
Digital Rights Management (DRM)
Create accessible PDF e-books
Create accessible LIT e-books
Create accessible OEBPS e-books
Create NIMAS files
Provide textbooks for handheld devices.
Provide textbooks as digital talking books (DTBs).
Provide accessible multimedia in on-line textbooks.
Provide alternative presentations of electronic or on-line textbooks.
Provide access to interactive activities for all users with disabilities.
Ensure that all actions can be completed from the keyboard.
Present information in ways that are accessible to both blind and deaf users.
Allow users to customize any timing of events.
Provide features that allow users to access multiple sources of information separately when they are delivered simultaneously.
Provide a simpler version of any screen with complex backgrounds.
Provide access to graphs for users who are blind or visually impaired.
Allow all graphs to be printed.
Allow all graphs to be enlarged on screen.
Allow users to control the width of lines and characteristics of fonts for viewing and printing graphs.
Provide a complete description in text for static graphs.
Provide summary information about dynamic graphs.
Provide alternate formats for graphs.
Provide tactile graphs for static graphs.
Provide a brief orientation in text.
Provide an audio equivalent to graphs.
Use tones to present an audio graph.
Provide text output of a visual graph.
Implement navigation features to allow users to explore data points while listening to a graph.
Provide a haptic or haptic and audible means of obtaining information conveyed in a graph.
Provide access to scientific and mathematical expressions for all users with disabilities.
Allow all expressions to be enlarged on screen.
Ensure that users with visual impairments can read scientific and mathematical expressions and that users with visual impairments and with physical impairments can write expressions.
Use MathML to provide access to scientific and mathematical expressions
Use LaTeX to provide access to scientific and mathematical expressions.
Use prerecorded audio to read static scientific and mathematical expressions
Use concatenated speech strings for simple scientific and mathematical expressions.
Create scientific and mathematical expressions scripts using guidelines for spoken mathematics.
Provide access to multimedia presentations for users with sensory disabilities.
Creating Accessible Multimedia
Add audio descriptions to multimedia presentations.
Add audio descriptions to movies using MAGpie.
Integrate audio descriptions into multimedia presentations using SMIL.
SMIL 2.x and audio descriptions
SMIL 1.0 and extended audio descriptions
Embed audio-description tracks in QuickTime movies.
Add audio descriptions to Windows Media.
Add closed captions to multimedia presentations.
Write captions for multimedia presentations using MAGpie.
Embed captions in QuickTime movies
Add audio-description and caption controls to QuickTime multimedia presentations.
Integrate captions into multimedia presentations using SMIL.
Integrate transparent- or translucent-background captions using SMIL in RealPlayer.
Integrate transparent- or translucent-background captions into multimedia presentations for the QuickTime Player.
Embedded transparent-background caption tracks in QuickTime
Transparent-background caption tracks with SMIL in QuickTime
Embedded translucent-background caption tracks in QuickTime
Translucent-background caption tracks with SMIL in QuickTime
Integrate captions into multimedia presentations using SAMI.
Provide accessible multimedia in e-books.
Integrate accessible multimedia into PDF e-books
Embed multimedia into PDF e-books.
Link to multimedia from a PDF e-book
Link to embedded multimedia in a PDF e-book
Make multimedia in a PDF e-book locatable
Integrate accessible multimedia into OEBPS-format e-books
Link to multimedia from OEBPS e-books
Integrate accessible multimedia into handheld e-books
Integrate multimedia into Palm e-books
Integrate multimedia into Windows Pocket PC e-books
Provide accessible multimedia in Digital Talking Books (DTBs).
Add in-line multimedia to DTBs
Integrate in-line multimedia in DTBs
Integrate linked multimedia into DTBs
Integrate embedded, accessible multimedia into DTBs
Embed accessible QuickTime multimedia into DTBs
Embed accessible Real media into DTBs
Embed accessible Windows Media multimedia into DTBs
Braille and Tactile Graphics Production Resources
Closed Captioning and Audio Description Resources
General Captioning Conventions
Guides to Spoken Mathematics
General Audio Description Guidelines